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Rácz Anita (nyelvész)
Settlement Names Referring to Eastern Slavic Settlers in Medieval Hungary / Rácz, Anita
Hungarians arrived at the Carpathian Basin at around 895?900 and after a long journey from the east they occupied the interior plains, mostly the river valleys (in Hungarian history, this event is referred to as the Conquest). The previous tribal alliance had slowly disintegrated by the time of king Stephen I (1001?1038) when pagan beliefs were replaced by Christianity. The peripheral areas of the Kingdom of Hungary, however, were typically uninhabited until the 12th century when the ethnic landscape started changing with the arrival of Saxon settlers, Slavs, Romanians, and Pechenegs. We have no Hungarian written sources from the time preceding the Conquest. The early Latin (less frequently Greek) written sources contain Hungarian words and expressions only sporadically and they are mostly proper names designating places. However, due to their early appearance and low number, these have proved to be truly valuable for linguistics and historical studies exploring the early history of Hungarians and the ethnic and population history of the contemporary Carpathian Basin. In this respect, the settlement names rooted in ethnonyms have a key role as they also shed light on relations between Hungarians and other peoples. This paper studies settlement names that may refer to Eastern Slavic settlers designated by the ethnonym orosz in the medieval Hungarian language. The ethnic groups designated by this name were first registered in the 11th?12th century, however, groups of Slavs could have joined the Hungarian populace before the Conquest. The study shows that the highest proportion of settlement names derived from this ethnonym are found in the northeastern, northern, as well as eastern regions of early medieval Hungary, mostly along the border of the country. The author describes the most frequent name formation patterns that can also be used for relative dating of oikonyms, and discusses the extension to which these data may be useful for the reconstruction of the ethnic landscape of medieval Hungary.
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Voprosy Onomastiki. - 19 : 2 (2022), p. 85-103. -
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