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Effect of irrigation and different N doses on maize yield and quality parameteres / Horváth Éva, Zagyi Péter, Juhász Csaba, Széles Adrienn
The studies were carried out at the Látókép Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen in Hungary. The measurements were carried out under irrigated and rainfed conditions with the maize hybrid Armagnac (FAO 400). Doses of 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 applied as spring basal fertilizer were followed by two top-dressings at V6 and V12 phenophases at rates of +30 and +30 kg N ha-1 . Every year, the forecrop was maize. In the present study, the hybrid Armagnac (FAO 490) was analysed in irrigated and rainfed variants. Irrigation water was applied with a Valley 8120 universal linear irrigator. Cultivation was carried out with a Sampo 2010 plot harvester. The harvested grain yield was calculated at 14% moisture content. After harvest, the nutritional value (starch, protein and oil) was determined using a Foss-Infratec 1241 Grain analyzer from 0.5 kg maize grain samples taken during harvest. The weather in the years studied was as follows: in 2018, 319 mm of precipitation fell in the growing season, 27 mm below the long-term average (346 mm), but the temperature was 2.1o C warmer than the average (17.5o C).In 2019, only 290 mm of precipitation fell in the growing season, 56 mm below the long-term average, and the temperature was 0.9o C warmer. In 2020, overall, the growing season had a significant rainfall of 449 mm, which was 103 mm above the multi-year average, and temperatures were only 0.2o C warmer. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical software package SPSS 14.0 for Windows. Analysis of variance was performed for the correlation between treatments and variables (yield; content values). The comparison of mean values of treatments was tested by Duncan test. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine interactions between independent and dependent variables. Based on comprehensive analysis of variance, each of the main factors influences the yield of the hybrid, but to a different extent. Based on the SS value, fertilizer application had the greatest effect on the hybrid, followed by the crop year and finally irrigation. Each of these effects was confirmed at the 0.1% level. The interaction of the factors was also significant (p<0.001). The effect of irrigation on the average of treatments affected the yield at 0.1% level. The aim of the research to investigate and quantify the effects of fertilisation (basal and top dressing) and irrigation on, yield and nutritional values (starch, protein and oil content) of maize. and to show how the negative impact of weather factors can be mitigated by analysing the combined effect of the crop year and agrotechnical factors (fertilisation, irrigation, genotype). The control treatment (A0 ) had the lowest average yield in all three years (p<0.05). The effect of crop year was also observed with increasing N doses. In 2018, compared to the 7.56 t/ha yield of the A0 treatment, the lowest basal N fertilizer treatment (A60 ) increased yield by 51.2% and the higher 120 kg N/ha treatment (A120 ) by 78%, resulting in yield increases of 3.87 and 5.90 t/ha, respectively. The V12180 treatment nearly doubled the yield (14.73 t/ha) compared to the A0 treatment. In the rainfed variant, the yield of the A0 treatment (7.32 t/ha) was significantly increased by the spring basal treatments, with the 60 kg N/ha fertilizer increasing yield to 10.59 t/ha (44.7%) and the 120 kg N/ha to 13.76 t/ha (88.8%) (p<0.05). In the irrigated version, in 2018, compared to the 8.28 t/ha yield of the A0 treatment, the lowest basal dose N fertilizer treatment (A60 ) increased yield by 4.13 t/ha (49.9%) and the higher 120 kg N/ha treatment (A120 ) by 5.16 t/ha (62.3%). Reliable yield increases in 2019 were also obtained in the A60 treatment (13.01 t/ha), an increase of 40.2% compared to the A0 treatment (9.28 t/ha). In 2020, the A120 treatment provided a significant yield increase (13.78 t/ha), more than doubling the yield compared to the A0 treatment of 6.51 t/ha. The top-dressing treatments did not produce a reliable yield increase in either year. Examining the protein content of the maize hybrid year by year, in 2018, irrigation increased the protein content, except for the non-fertilized (A0 ) and V690 treatments. The largest increase was recorded in the A60 treatment, with an increase of 8.2%. In 2019 and 2020, the effect of irrigation was observed to reduce protein content. Our results are in agreement with those of Latkovicsné, (1961) and Bocz, (1976) that irrigation has a protein reducing effect. The differences between the rainfed and irrigated varieties, measured by nutrient level, did not show significant differences. In terms of starch content, in 2018, the largest reduction in starch content was 2.01% in treatment A60 , which was irrigation-induced. In 2019, irrigation increased the starch content of the hybrid, except for treatments A0 , A60 and V12180 . The V12120 treatment had the largest increase of 1.1%. In 2020, all nutrient levels were higher under irrigation for all treatments except A120 and V690 . Differences under irrigation did not show reliable differences in any year. In 2018, higher oil content was observed in treatments A60 , V690 , V6150 due to irrigation. In 2019, oil content measured under natural rainfall conditions was higher except for the A0, V6150 and V12180 treatments. The largest difference (5.6%) was statistically confirmed in treatment A0 (p<0.001). In 2020, the irrigated version resulted in higher oil content, except for treatments A0 and V12180 . However, differences in the effect of irrigation did not show reliable differences. When the correlation between fertilizer and yield was examined by year, the strongest correlation between the two factors was found in the irrigated version in the year 2020, between fertilizer and yield (r=0.896*** ). The determination coefficient value showed an 80% effect of fertilizer on yield. When examining the correlation between yield and nutritional parameters, the strongest correlation was found in the irrigated version in 2018. The correlation between the two variables was (r=0.852**). When examining the correlation between protein content and fertilizer, the strongest correlation was observed in the Rainfed variant in 2019 (r=0.893***). The largest effect of fertilizer application on starch content was detected in the rainfed variant in 2019, where 58% of the time fertilizer affected starch content. The correlation between oil content and fertilizer was examined in the irrigated version in 2019, showing a medium correlation (r=0.725***), with a determination coefficient value of 53%. Overall, it can be concluded that spring basal treatments significantly increase yield. Examining the correlation between fertilizer and yield by year, the strongest correlation between the two factors was found in the irrigated version in 2020, where the determination coefficient value showed an 80% effect of fertilizer on yield. The effect of N doses was more pronounced under irrigation and increased the protein content. In the case of starch and oil content, the differences due to irrigation did not always show reliable differences.
Növénytermesztési és kertészeti tudományok
XXV International Symposium on Plant Irrigation - Plant Irrigation for Sustainable Rural Development : Book of Proceedings / eds. Stanislaw Rolbiecki, Atilgan Atilgan. - p. 29-31. -
Horváth Éva (1993-) (környezetgazdálkodási agrármérnök)
Zagyi Péter (1986-) (agrármérnök)
Juhász Csaba (1962-) (környezetgazdálkodási agrármérnök)
Széles Adrienn (1980-) (okleveles agrármérnök)
Intézményi repozitóriumban (DEA) tárolt változat
Corvina könyvtári katalógus v8.2.27
Minden jog fenntartva.