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001-es BibID:BIBFORM119220
035-os BibID:(Scopus)85180982502 (WoS)001145150700001 (cikkazonosító)116740
Első szerző:Hateffard, Fatemeh (digital soil mapping)
Cím:Evaluating the extrapolation potential of random forest digital soil mapping / Fatemeh Hateffard, Luc Steinbuch, Gerard B.M. Heuvelink
Megjegyzések:Spatial soil information is essential for informed decision-making in a wide range of fields. Digital soil mapping (DSM) using machine learning algorithms has become a popular approach for generating soil maps. DSM capitalises on the relation between environmental variables (i.e., features) and a soil property of interest. It typically needs a training dataset that covers the feature space well. Mapping in areas where there are no training data is challenging, because extrapolation in geographic space often induces extrapolation in feature space and can seriously deteriorate prediction accuracy. The objective of this study was to analyse the extrapolation effects of random forest DSM models by predicting topsoil properties (OC, clay, and pH) in four African countries using soil data from the ISRIC Africa Soil Profiles database. The study was conducted in eight experiments whereby soil data from one or three countries were used to predict in the other countries. We calculated similarities between donor and recipient areas using four measures, including soil type similarity, homosoil, dissimilarity index by area of applicability (AOA), and quantile regression forest (QRF) prediction interval width. The aim was to determine the level of agreement between these four measures and identify the method that had the strongest agreement with common validation metrics. The results indicated a positive correlation between soil type similarity, homosoil and dissimilarity index by AOA. Surprisingly, we observed a negative correlation between dissimilarity index by AOA and QRF prediction interval width. Although the cross-validation results for the trained models were acceptable, the extrapolation results were unsatisfactory, highlighting the risk of extrapolation. Using soil data from three countries instead of one increased the similarities for all measures, but it had a limited effect on improving extrapolation. Also, none of the measures had a strong correlation with the validation metrics. This was particularly disappointing for AOA and QRF, which we had expected to be strong indicators of extrapolation prediction performance. Results showed that homosoil and soil type methods had the strongest correlation with validation metrics. The results for this case study revealed limitations of using AOA and QRF as measures of extrapolation effects, highlighting the importance of not relying on these methods blindly. Further research and more case studies are needed to address the effects of extrapolation of DSM models.
Tárgyszavak:Természettudományok Földtudományok idegen nyelvű folyóiratközlemény külföldi lapban
Extrapolation effects
Prediction accuracy
Spatial soil information
Megjelenés:Geoderma. - 441 (2024), p. 1-8. -
További szerzők:Steinbuch, Luc Heuvelink, Gerard B.M.
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