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001-es BibID:BIBFORM044626
Első szerző:Négyesi Gábor (geográfus)
Cím:Wind erosion measurements in Hungary / Négyesi Gábor, Buró Botond
Megjegyzések:Wind erosion causes serious problems and significant damage in Hungary, as well as in many parts of the World. This phenomena endangers primarily sandy soils, however, may cause significant damage in areas of heavy-textured soils. A part of the damage can be agricultural (soil denudation, fertility reduction, etc.) and public health (dust emission, chemicals entering the air). In the course of field surveys soil samples from the upper cultivated layer of the soil types were taken for laboratory analyses. Sedimentological analysis of soil samples was carried out in the Physical Geographical Laboratory of the University of Debrecen. Among sedimentological conditions those were studied that influence the magnitude of wind erosion (mechanical composition, CaCO3 and humus content).Wind erosion analyses were carried out in the laboratory wind tunnel of the University of Debrecen. In the tunnel the threshold wind speed of the collected soil samples was determined and erodibility measurements were performed. Experiments were performed in the wind-tunnel at various speeds so that wind velocity was measured at several locations above the soil surface. Based on the results wind profile functions above the soils were determined.By experiments performed on soil samples of different textures it was justified that critical starting velocity and erodibility of the given texture classes depend primarily on the mechanical composition of the soils, however, differences within the same texture class are the result of differences in the CaCO3 and humus content of the soils as the latter two play an important role in the development of soil aggregates. I have determined that sand and silt contents influence the values of critical starting velocity differently. Increasing sand content results in decreasing critical starting velocity while increasing silt content increases the velocity value.During erodibility studies exponential function was found between the mass of material carried away and the wind speed. Soil erosion (after reaching the critical wind velocity) increases rapidly with wind speed. Based on the comparative analysis of the datasets containing the mechanical composition of all of the samples and the volume of material carried away, I have stated that there is a positive linear connection between the sand content of the soils and the volume of eroded material. Furthermore, increasing silt content decreases erosion linearly while increasing the clay content results in exponential reduction of eroded soil.Erodibility categories were set based on the data measured in the wind tunnel and these were associated with the Agricultural-topographic maps with the scale of 1:100 000 of the study areas. The resultant wind erosion maps were compared to the land-use maps of the study areas and in this way the complex potential wind erosion risk map was constructed. This made it possible to show the areal extent of the given erodibility categories.
Tárgyszavak:Természettudományok Földtudományok előadáskivonat
Megjelenés:Geomorfologicky sbornik 11: State of geomorphological research in the year 2013 / ed. Z. Mácka, M. Havlicek, J. Demek, K. Kirchner. - p. 33. -
További szerzők:Buró Botond (1986-) (geográfus)
Pályázati támogatás:TÁMOP-4.2.2/B-10/1-2010-0024
Földtudományok Doktori Iskola
Internet cím:Intézményi repozitóriumban (DEA) tárolt változat
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