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1.

001-es BibID:BIBFORM078411
035-os BibID:(PMID)30734834 (WoS)000472512500009 (Scopus)85061242629
Első szerző:Baksa Brigitta (fogorvos)
Cím:Characterization of functional subgroups among genetically identified cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine nucleus / Baksa B., Kovács A., Bayasgalan T., Szentesi P., Kőszeghy Á., Szücs P., Pál B.
Dátum:2019
ISSN:1420-682X
Megjegyzések:The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a part of the reticular activating system which is composed of cholinergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Early electrophysiological studies characterized and grouped PPN neurons based on certain functional properties (i.e. the presence or absence of the A-current, spike latency, and low threshold spikes). Although other electrophysiological characteristics of these neurons were also described (as high threshold membrane potential oscillations, great differences in spontaneous firing rate and the presence or absence of the M-current), systematic assessment of these properties and correlation of them with morphological markers are still missing. In this work, we conducted electrophysiological experiments on brain slices of genetically identified cholinergic neurons in the PPN. Electrophysiological properties were compared with rostrocaudal location of the neuronal soma and selected morphometric features obtained with post hoc reconstruction. We found that functional subgroups had different proportions in the rostral and caudal subregions of the nucleus. Neurons with A-current can be divided to early-firing and late-firing neurons, where the latter type was found exclusively in the caudal subregion. Similar to this, different parameters of high threshold membrane potential oscillations also showed characteristic rostrocaudal distribution. Furthermore, based on our data we propose that high threshold oscillations rather emerge from neuronal somata and not from the proximal dendrites. In summary, we demonstrated the existence and spatial distribution of functional subgroups of genetically identified PPN cholinergic neurons, which are in accordance with differences found in projection and in vivo functional findings of the subregions. Being aware of functional differences of PPN subregions will help the design and analysis of experiments using genetically encoded opto- and chemogenetic markers for in vivo experiments.
Tárgyszavak:Orvostudományok Elméleti orvostudományok idegen nyelvű folyóiratközlemény külföldi lapban
folyóiratcikk
pedunculopontine nucleus
cholinergic neuron
spike delay
A-current
rostrocaudal gradient
high threshold oscillation
Megjelenés:Cellular And Molecular Life Sciences. - 76 : 14 (2019), p. 2799-2815. -
További szerzők:Kovács Adrienn (1989-) (molekuláris biológus) Bayasgalan, Tsogbadrakh (1983-) (Általános orvos) Szentesi Péter (1967-) (élettanász) Kőszeghy Áron (1983-) (Ph.D hallgató, élettanász) Szűcs Péter (1974-) (kutatóorvos) Pál Balázs (1975-) (élettanász)
Pályázati támogatás:KTIA_13_NAP-A-I/10
Egyéb
2017-1.2.1-NKP-2017-00002
Egyéb
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Intézményi repozitóriumban (DEA) tárolt változat
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2.

001-es BibID:BIBFORM095571
035-os BibID:(WoS)000627328400001 (Scopus)85102438552 (PubMed)33716672 (cikkazonosító)614947
Első szerző:Bayasgalan, Tsogbadrakh (Általános orvos)
Cím:Topographical Organization of M-Current on Dorsal and Median Raphe Serotonergic Neurons / Tsogbadrakh Bayasgalan, Andrea Csemer, Adrienn Kovacs, Krisztina Pocsai, Balazs Pal
Dátum:2021
ISSN:1662-5102
Megjegyzések:Dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DR and MR, respectively) are members of the reticular activating system and play important role in the regulation of the sleepwakefulness cycle, movement, and affective states. M-current is a voltage-gated potassium current under the control of neuromodulatory mechanisms setting neuronal excitability. Our goal was to determine the proportion of DR and MR serotonergic neurons possessing M-current and whether they are organized topographically. Electrophysiological parameters of raphe serotonergic neurons influenced by this current were also investigated. We performed slice electrophysiology on genetically identified serotonergic neurons. Neurons with M-current are located rostrally in the DR and dorsally in the MR. M-current determines firing rate, afterhyperpolarization amplitude, and adaptation index (AI) of these neurons, but does not affect input resistance, action potential width, and high threshold oscillations.These findings indicate that M-current has a strong impact on firing properties of certain serotonergic neuronal subpopulations and it might serve as an effective contributor to cholinergic and local serotonergic neuromodulatory actions.
Tárgyszavak:Orvostudományok Elméleti orvostudományok idegen nyelvű folyóiratközlemény külföldi lapban
folyóiratcikk
Megjelenés:Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. - 15 (2021), p. 614947. -
További szerzők:Csemer Andrea (1994-) (molekuláris biológus) Kovács Adrienn (1989-) (molekuláris biológus) Pocsai Krisztina (1978-) (élettanász) Pál Balázs (1975-) (élettanász)
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Intézményi repozitóriumban (DEA) tárolt változat
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3.

001-es BibID:BIBFORM095575
035-os BibID:(cikkazonosító)707789 (WoS)000683012200001 (Scopus)85112145519 (PubMed)34381336
Első szerző:Bayasgalan, Tsogbadrakh (Általános orvos)
Cím:Alteration of mesopontine cholinergic function by the lack of KCNQ4 subunit / Bayasgalan T., Stupniki S., Kovács A., Csemer A., Szentesi P., Pocsai K., Dionisio L., Spitzmaul G., Pál B.
Dátum:2021
ISSN:1662-5102
Tárgyszavak:Orvostudományok Elméleti orvostudományok idegen nyelvű folyóiratközlemény külföldi lapban
folyóiratcikk
Megjelenés:Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. - 15 (2021), p. 707789. -
További szerzők:Stupniki, S. Kovács Adrienn (1989-) (molekuláris biológus) Csemer Andrea (1994-) (molekuláris biológus) Szentesi Péter (1967-) (élettanász) Pocsai Krisztina (1978-) (élettanász) Dionisio, L. Spitzmaul, G. Pál Balázs (1975-) (élettanász)
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4.

001-es BibID:BIBFORM060223
Első szerző:Bordás Csilla
Cím:The M-current contributes to high threshold membrane potential oscillations in a cell type-specific way in the pedunculopontine nucleus of mice / Bordas Csilla, Kovacs Adrienn, Pal Balazs
Dátum:2015
ISSN:1662-5102
Megjegyzések:The pedunculopontine nucleus is known as a cholinergic nucleus of the reticular activating system, participating in regulation of sleep and wakefulness. Besides cholinergic neurons, it consists of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons as well. According to classical and recent studies, more subgroups of neurons were defined. Groups based on the neurotransmitter released by a neuron are not homogenous, but can be further subdivided. The PPN neurons do not only provide cholinergic and non-cholinergic inputs to several subcortical brain areas but they are also targets of cholinergic and other different neuromodulatory actions. Although cholinergic neuromodulation has been already investigated in the nucleus, one of its characteristic targets, the M-type potassium current has not been described yet. Using slice electrophysiology, we provide evidence in the present work that cholinergic neurons possess M-current, whereas GABAergic neurons lack it. The M-current contributes to certain functional differences of cholinergic and GABAergic neurons, as spike frequency adaptation, action potential firing frequency or the amplitude difference of medium afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs). Furthermore, we showed that high threshold membrane potential oscillation with high power, around 20 Hz frequency is a functional property of almost all cholinergic cells, whereas GABAergic neurons have only low amplitude oscillations. Blockade of the M-current abolished the oscillatory activity at 20 Hz, and largely diminished it at other frequencies. Taken together, the M-current seems to be characteristic for PPN cholinergic neurons. It provides a possibility for modulating gamma band activity of these cells, thus contributing to neuromodulatory regulation of the reticular activating system.
Tárgyszavak:Orvostudományok Elméleti orvostudományok idegen nyelvű folyóiratközlemény külföldi lapban
M-current
Neuromodulation
oscillatory activity
pedunculopontine nucleus
spike frequency adaptation
Megjelenés:Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. - 9 (2015), Article ID 121. -
További szerzők:Kovács Adrienn (1989-) (molekuláris biológus) Pál Balázs (1975-) (élettanász)
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Intézményi repozitóriumban (DEA) tárolt változat
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5.

001-es BibID:BIBFORM113771
035-os BibID:(cikkazonosító)e13939 (WOS)001035767500001 (Scopus)85165549817
Első szerző:Csemer Andrea (molekuláris biológus)
Cím:Astrocyte- and NMDA receptor-dependent slow inward currents differently contribute to synaptic plasticity in an age-dependent manner in mouse and human neocortex / Csemer Andrea, Kovács Adrienn, Maamrah Baneen, Pocsai Krisztina, Korpás Kristóf, Klekner Álmos, Szücs Péter, Nánási Péter P., Pál Balázs
Dátum:2023
ISSN:1474-9718 1474-9726
Megjegyzések:Slow inward currents (SICs) are known as excitatory events of neurons elicited by astrocytic glutamate via activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. By using slice electrophysiology, we tried to provide evidence that SICs can elicit synaptic plasticity. Age dependence of SICs and their impact on synaptic plasticity was also investigated in both on murine and human cortical slices. It was found that SICs can induce a moderate synaptic plasticity, with features similar to spike timing-dependent plasticity. Overall SIC activity showed a clear decline with aging in humans and completely disappeared above a cutoff age. In conclusion, while SICs contribute to a form of astrocyte-dependent synaptic plasticity both in mice and humans, this plasticity is differentially affected by aging. Thus, SICs are likely to play an important role in age-dependent physiological and pathological alterations of synaptic plasticity.
Tárgyszavak:Orvostudományok Elméleti orvostudományok idegen nyelvű folyóiratközlemény külföldi lapban
folyóiratcikk
NMDA receptor
aging
astrocyte
human brain
neocortex
pyramidal cell
slow inward current
synaptic plasticity
Megjelenés:Aging Cell. - 22 : 9 (2023), p. e13939. -
További szerzők:Kovács Adrienn (1989-) (molekuláris biológus) Maamrah, Baneen Pocsai Krisztina (1978-) (élettanász) Korpás Kristóf Levente (1998-) (orvostanhallgató) Klekner Álmos (1970-) (idegsebész) Szűcs Péter (1974-) (kutatóorvos) Nánási Péter Pál (1956-) (élettanász) Pál Balázs (1975-) (élettanász)
Pályázati támogatás:138090
OTKA
2020-4.1.1-TKP2020
Egyéb
2017-1.2.1-NKP-2017-00002
Egyéb
KTIA_NAP_13-2-2014-0005
Egyéb
KTIA_13_NAP-A-I/10
Egyéb
Stipendium Hungaricum PhD program
Egyéb
NKFIH-K138090
Egyéb
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Intézményi repozitóriumban (DEA) tárolt változat
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6.

001-es BibID:BIBFORM095573
035-os BibID:(cikkazonosító)109594 (WoS)000688508300032 (Scopus)85113379671 (PubMed)34433068
Első szerző:Dautan, Daniel
Cím:Modulation of motor behavior by the mesencephalic locomotor region / Daniel Dautan, Adrienn Kovács, Tsogbadrakh Bayasgalan, Miguel Diaz, Balazs Pal, Juan Mena-Segovia
Dátum:2021
ISSN:2211-1247
Megjegyzések:The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) is a functionally-defined area located in the midbrain that serves as an interface between higher-order motor systems (e.g. basal ganglia and cortex) and lower motor neurons (brainstem and spinal cord). The excitatory module of the MLR is composed of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and the cuneiform nucleus (CnF) and their activation has been proposed to elicit different modalities of movement, but whether differences in connectivity and physiological properties explain their contributions to motor activity is not known. Here we report that CnF-glutamatergic neurons are functionally homogeneous and have short-range axonal projections, whereas PPN-glutamatergic neurons are heterogeneous and maintain long-range connections with other motor circuits, most notably the basal ganglia. Optogenetic activation of CnF-neurons produced short-lasting muscle activation and fast-onset, involuntary motor activity, whereas activation of PPN-neurons produced long-lasting muscle activation, decreased locomotion and disrupted gait. Our results thus reveal a differential contribution to motor behavior in the structures that compose the MLR.
Tárgyszavak:Orvostudományok Elméleti orvostudományok idegen nyelvű folyóiratközlemény külföldi lapban
folyóiratcikk
Megjelenés:Cell Reports. - 36 : 8 (2021), p. 109594. -
További szerzők:Kovács Adrienn (1989-) (molekuláris biológus) Bayasgalan, Tsogbadrakh (1983-) (Általános orvos) Diaz-Acevedo, Miguel A. Pál Balázs (1975-) (élettanász) Mena-Segovia, Juan
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7.

001-es BibID:BIBFORM060025
Első szerző:Kőszeghy Áron (Ph.D hallgató, élettanász)
Cím:Endocannabinoid signaling modulates neurons of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) via astrocytes. / Áron Kőszeghy, Adrienn Kovács, Tamás Bíró, Péter Szűcs, János Vincze, Zoltán Hegyi, Miklós Antal, Balázs Pál
Dátum:2015
Megjegyzések:The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is known as the cholinergic part of the reticular activating system (RAS) and it plays an important role in transitions of slow-wave sleep to REM sleep and wakefulness. Although both exogenous and endocannabinoids affect sleep, the mechanism of endocannabinoid neuromodulation has not been characterized at cellular level in the PPN. In this paper, we demonstrate that both neurons and glial cells from the PPN respond to cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor agonists. The neuronal response can be depolarization or hyperpolarization, while astrocytes exhibit more frequent calcium waves. All these effects are absent in CB1 gene-deficient mice. Blockade of the fast synaptic neurotransmission or neuronal action potential firing does not change the effect on the neuronal membrane potential significantly, while inhibition of astrocytic calcium waves by thapsigargin diminishes the response. Inhibition of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) abolishes hyperpolarization, whereas blockade of group II mGluRs prevents depolarization. Initially active neurons and glial cells display weaker responses partially due to the increased endocannabinoid tone in their environment. Taken together, we propose that cannabinoid receptor stimulation modulates PPN neuronal activity in the following manner: active neurons may elicit calcium waves in astrocytes via endogenous CB1 receptor agonists. Astrocytes in turn release glutamate that activates different metabotropic glutamate receptors of neurons and modulate PPN neuronal activity.
Tárgyszavak:Orvostudományok Elméleti orvostudományok idegen nyelvű folyóiratközlemény külföldi lapban
Endocannabinoid
Pedunculopontine nucleus
CB1 receptor
Neuromodulation
Astrocyte
Metabotropic glutamate receptor
Megjelenés:Brain structure and function 220 : 5 (2015), p. 3023-3041. -
További szerzők:Kovács Adrienn (1989-) (molekuláris biológus) Bíró Tamás (1968-) (élettanász) Szűcs Péter (1974-) (kutatóorvos) Vincze János (1988-) (orvos) Hegyi Zoltán (1983-) (molekuláris biológus) Antal Miklós (1951-) (orvos, anatómus) Pál Balázs (1975-) (élettanász)
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Intézményi repozitóriumban (DEA) tárolt változat
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8.

001-es BibID:BIBFORM082078
035-os BibID:(WoS)000509325000003 (Scopus)85071744080 (PubMed)31469725
Első szerző:Kovács Adrienn (molekuláris biológus)
Cím:Orexinergic actions modify occurrence of slow inward currents on neurons in the pedunculopontine nucleus / Kovács Adrienn, Baksa Brigitta, Bayasgalan Tsogbadrakh, Szentesi Péter, Csemer Andrea, Pál Balázs
Dátum:2019
ISSN:0959-4965
Megjegyzések:Orexins are neuromodulatory peptides of the lateral hypothalamus which regulate homeostatic mechanisms including sleep-wakefulness cycles. Orexinergic actions stabilize wakefulness by acting on the nuclei of the reticular activating system, including the pedunculopontine nucleus. Orexin application to pedunculopontine neurons produces a noisy tonic inward current and an increase in the frequency and amplitudes of excitatory postsynaptic currents. In the present project, we investigated orexinergic neuromodulatory actions on astrocyte-mediated neuronal slow inward currents of pedunculopontine neurons and their relationships with tonic currents by using slice electrophysiology on preparations from mice. We demonstrated that, in contrast to several other neuromodulatory actions and in line with literature data, orexin predominantly elicited a tonic inward current. A subpopulation of the pedunculopontine neurons possessed slow inward currents. Independently from the tonic currents, actions on slow inward currents were also detected, which resembled other neuromodulatory actions: if slow inward currents were almost absent on the neuron, orexin induced an increase of the charge movements by slow inward currents, whereas if slow inward current activity was abundant on the neurons, orexin exerted inhibitory action on it. Our data support the previous findings that orexin elicits only inward currents in contrast with cannabinoid, cholinergic or serotonergic actions. Similar to the aforementioned neuromodulatory actions, orexin influences slow inward currents in a way depending on control slow inward current activity. Furthermore, we found that orexinergic actions on slow inward currents are similarly independent from its actions on tonic currents, as it was previously found with other neuromodulatory agonists.
Tárgyszavak:Orvostudományok Elméleti orvostudományok idegen nyelvű folyóiratközlemény külföldi lapban
folyóiratcikk
neuromodulation
orexin
pedunculopontine nucleus
slow inward current
tonic inward current
Megjelenés:Neuroreport. - 30 : 14 (2019), p. 933-938. -
További szerzők:Baksa Brigitta (1989-) (fogorvos) Bayasgalan, Tsogbadrakh (1983-) (Általános orvos) Szentesi Péter (1967-) (élettanász) Csemer Andrea (1994-) (molekuláris biológus) Pál Balázs (1975-) (élettanász)
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Intézményi repozitóriumban (DEA) tárolt változat
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9.

001-es BibID:BIBFORM070540
Első szerző:Kovács Adrienn (molekuláris biológus)
Cím:Astrocyte-Dependent Slow Inward Currents (SICs) Participate in Neuromodulatory Mechanisms in the Pedunculopontine Nucleus (PPN) / Kovács Adrienn, Pál Balázs
Dátum:2017
Megjegyzések:Slow inward currents (SICs) are known as excitatory events of neurons caused by astrocytic glutamate release and consequential activation of neuronal extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. In the present article we investigate the role of these astrocyte-dependent excitatory events on a cholinergic nucleus of the reticular activating system (RAS), the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). It is well known about this and other elements of the RAS, that they do not only give rise to neuromodulatory innervation of several areas, but also targets neuromodulatory actions from other members of the RAS or factors providing the homeostatic drive for sleep. Using slice electrophysiology, optogenetics and morphological reconstruction, we revealed that SICs are present in a population of PPN neurons. The frequency of SICs recorded on PPN neurons was higher when the soma of the given neuron was close to an astrocytic soma. SICs do not appear simultaneously on neighboring neurons, thus it is unlikely that they synchronize neuronal activity in this structure. Occurrence of SICs is regulated by cannabinoid, muscarinic and serotonergic neuromodulatory mechanisms. In most cases, SICs occurred independently from tonic neuronal currents. SICs were affected by different neuromodulatory agents in a rather uniform way: if control SIC activity was low, the applied drugs increased it, but if SIC activity was increased in control, the same drugs lowered it. SICs of PPN neurons possibly represent a mechanism which elicits network-independent spikes on certain PPN neurons; forming an alternative, astrocyte-dependent pathway of neuromodulatory mechanisms.
Tárgyszavak:Orvostudományok Elméleti orvostudományok idegen nyelvű folyóiratközlemény külföldi lapban
astrocyte
neuromodulation
optogenetics
pedunculopontine nucleus
slow inward current
Megjelenés:Frontiers in cellular neuroscience. - 11 : 16 (2017), p. 1-16. -
További szerzők:Pál Balázs (1975-) (élettanász)
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Intézményi repozitóriumban (DEA) tárolt változat
Borító:

10.

001-es BibID:BIBFORM062728
Első szerző:Kovács Adrienn (molekuláris biológus)
Cím:Direct presynaptic and indirect astrocyte-mediated mechanisms both contribute to endocannabinoid signaling in the pedunculopontine nucleus of mice / Kovács A., Bordás Cs., Bíró T., Hegyi Z., Antal M., Szücs P., Pál B.
Dátum:2017
ISSN:1863-2653 1863-2661
Megjegyzések:The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), a cholinergic nucleus of the reticular activating system, is known to be involved in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. Endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids, either by systemic or local administration to the pedunculopontine nucleus can both influence sleep. We previously demonstrated that activation of astrocytes by cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor agonists was able to modulate the membrane potential of PPN neurons, even in the presence of blockers of fast synaptic neurotransmission. In the present work we provide evidence that synaptic inputs of PPN neurons are also affected by activation of presynaptic and astrocytic CB1 receptors.Using slice electrophysiology combined with calcium imaging, optogenetics and immunohistochemistry, we revealed a direct presynaptic inhibitory action on inhibitory postsynaptic currents, along with a mild increase of excitatory postsynaptic currents during CB1 receptor stimulation. Besides inhibition of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission through stimulation of presynaptic CB1 receptors, astrocyte- and mGluR-dependent tonic inhibition and excitation also developed. The mild stimulatory action of CB1 receptor activation on excitatory neurotransmission is the combination of astrocyte-dependent tonic excitation on excitatory neurons and the canonical presynaptic CB1 receptor activation and consequential inhibition of excitatory synaptic neurotransmission, whereas the astrocyte-dependent stimulatory action was not observed on inhibitory neurotransmission within the PPN.Our findings demonstrate that endocannabinoids act in the PPN via a dual pathway, consisting of a direct presynaptic and an indirect, astrocyte-mediated component, regulating synaptic strength and neuronal activity via independent mechanisms.
Tárgyszavak:Orvostudományok Elméleti orvostudományok idegen nyelvű folyóiratközlemény külföldi lapban
pedunculopontine nucleus
CB1 receptor
optogenetics
astrocyte
neuromodulation
Megjelenés:Brain Structure & Function 222 : 1 (2017), p. 247-266. -
További szerzők:Bordás Csilla Bíró Tamás (1968-) (élettanász) Hegyi Zoltán (1983-) (molekuláris biológus) Antal Miklós (1951-) (orvos, anatómus) Szűcs Péter (1974-) (kutatóorvos) Pál Balázs (1975-) (élettanász)
Pályázati támogatás:Nemzeti Agykutatási Program KTIA_13_NAP-A-I/10
Egyéb
Nemzeti Agykutatási Program KTIA_NAP_13-1-2013-0001
Egyéb
Nemzeti Agykutatási Program KTIA_NAP_13-2-2014-0005
Egyéb
MTA-TKI 242
MTA
TÁMOP-4.2.2.B-15/1/KONV-2015-0001
TÁMOP
Internet cím:Intézményi repozitóriumban (DEA) tárolt változat
DOI
Borító:

11.

001-es BibID:BIBFORM060026
Első szerző:Kovács Adrienn (molekuláris biológus)
Cím:Cholinergic and endocannabinoid neuromodulatory effects overlap on neurons of the pedunculopontine nucleus of mice / Adrienn Kovács, Csilla Bordás, Balázs Pál
Dátum:2015
Megjegyzések:The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a part of the reticular activating system and one of the main sources of the cholinergic fibers in the midbrain, while it is also subject to cholinergic modulation. This nucleus is known to be a structure that controls sleep-wake cycles, arousal, and locomotion. Neurons of the PPN are targets of several neuromodulatory mechanisms, which elicit heterogeneous pharmacological responses including hyperpolarization and depolarization, whereas lack of response can also be observed. In agreement with previous findings, we found that PPN neurons respond to the muscarinic agonist carbachol in a heterogeneous manner: they were depolarized and showed increased firing rate, decreased firing frequency, and were hyperpolarized, or showed no response. The heterogeneity of the muscarinic activation was similar to our previous observations with type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor agonists; therefore, we investigated whether muscarinic and endocannabinoid modulatory mechanisms elicit the same action on a certain neuron. To achieve this, whole-cell patch clamp experiments were conducted on midbrain slices containing the PPN. Carbachol was applied first and, after recording the changes in the membrane potential and the firing frequency and achieving washout, the CB1 receptor agonist arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) was applied. A marked but not full overlap was observed: all neurons depolarized by carbachol were depolarized by the CB1 receptor agonist ACEA, and all neurons lacking response to carbachol lacked response to ACEA as well. However, neurons hyperpolarized by carbachol were depolarized, hyperpolarized, or not affected by the ACEA. These results indicate that endocannabinoid and muscarinic modulatory effects involve similar mechanisms of action.
Tárgyszavak:Orvostudományok Elméleti orvostudományok idegen nyelvű folyóiratközlemény külföldi lapban
CB1 receptor
Muscarinic
Carbachol
arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide
reticular activating system
Megjelenés:Neuroreport. - 26 : 5 (2015), p. 273-278. -
További szerzők:Bordás Csilla Pál Balázs (1975-) (élettanász)
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Intézményi repozitóriumban (DEA) tárolt változat
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